Q: What is meant by means of transportation.
A: The means of transporting goods from one place to another in the country are called means of transportation.
Q: What is meant by means of communication?
A: The means of conveying messages and information from one place to another in the country are called means of communication.
Q: Write four advantages of means of transportation.
Ans: 1) Expansion in trade 2) Expansion of markets 3) mobility of labour 4) utilization of resources
Q: Write down the means of transportation.
A: 1) Railways 2) Roads 3) Shipping 4) Air Transport
Q: Write down the problems of Pakistan Railways.
A: 1) Corruption 2) Non-profit route 3) Unnecessary recruitment 4) Lack of facilities in train
Q: What is meant by dry port?
A: Dry port refers to a place that aims to facilitate the movement of goods from ports and border areas, and to facilitate traders in import and export. There are currently eight dry ports operating in Pakistan.
Q: What is meant by Information Technology?
A: The process of storing information and forwarding information with the help of computers, the internet and other electronic devices is called information technology.
Q: Write four important points about information technology.
A: 1) Connect with the world from home 2) Online shopping 3) Access to information 4) Increase the quality of education
Q: What is meant by E-government?
A: E-government means the public has access to basic and important information about government institutions through the internet. As a result of this initiative, websites of 34 ministries/ divisions have been developed. Where information can be obtained.
Q: Write down four objectives of Motorway.
A: 1) Provision of infrastructure for economic growth 2) Promotion of trade activities 3) Promotion of industries 4) Fast delivery of goods
Q: What is meant by the mobility of labour?
A: Mobility of labour means the ability and capacity of labourer to move form one occupation to another occupation one place to another place, lower grade to higher grade and lower group to higher group socially.
Q: Write Kinds of mobility of labour.
A: 1) Occupational mobility 2) social mobility 3) geographical mobility 4) Horizontal mobility 5) Vertical mobility
Q: What is meant by professional mobility/Occupational mobility?
A: when a labourer changes his occupation it is called professional mobility or Occupational mobility. For example, washerman may become tailor or teacher becomes businessman.
Q: What is meant by social mobility?
A: When a person from lower social class reaches a higher position, it will be social mobility. For example, son of black smith may become a doctor.
Q: What is meant by geographical mobility?
A: When a labourer moves from one area to some other area in search of better job or higher reward, its called geographical mobility. For example, movement of labourer from village to city or to other country.
Q: What is meant by Horizontal mobility?
A: When a labourer moves from one profession to another having similar salary and status, it will be his horizontal mobility. For example, a clerk becomes a primary school teacher.
Q: What is meant by Vertical mobility?
A: When a labourer moves from lower grade to higher grade, it will be his vertical mobility. For example, clerk become an officer.
Q: Write four factors hindering/affecting the mobility of labour.
A: 1) Education and training 2) Wage differences 3) Desire to progress 4) Pease and security
Q: What is meant by manpower?
A: Manpower refers to the total number of people living in a country who are capable of working and also want to work. Children and the elderly are not included in the workforce.
Q: Write down the problems of manpower/labour force.
A: 1) Unemployment 2) Uneducated 3) Low productivity 4) Lack of social security
Q: What is meant by Unemployment?
A: Unemployment is a phenomenon where a person in physically fit and qualified enough to take a job but does not find it at the prevailing wage rate.
Q: Write kind of unemployment.
A: 1) structural unemployment 2) Frictional unemployment 3) Disguised unemployment 4) Technical unemployment 5) Voluntary unemployment 6) Cyclical unemployment 7) Seasonal unemployment
Q: What is meant by Under-employment?
A: Underemployment is a situation in which a person somehow or the other gets a job but its level is below his qualification and competence.
Q: What is meant by semi-unemployment?
A: Semi-unemployment means that labour is getting less work than their capacity or working part time. For example, an MA pass working as a clerk.
Q: What is Seasonal unemployment?
A: There are many businesses and factories in the country that do not work all year round. As the weather changes, these jobs cease and the people who work in them become unemployed. For example, businesses related to ice factories, cotton and sugarcane crops, etc.
Q: Define disguised unemployment?
A: Disguised unemployment is occurring when the contribution of a worker is less than what he should produce by working in normal hours per day. In other words, his marginal revenue product is cither nil or negligible and if that worker is withdrawn, total output may increase.
Q: Write four causes of Unemployment in Pakistan.
A: 1) Population growth 2) Capital Intensive technology 3) Political instability 4) Lack of investment
Q: Give Suggestions to end unemployment.
A: 1) Industrial planning 2) Equitable distribution of wealth 3) Increase in investment 4) Political stability
Q: Write four merits/ benefits of motorway
A: 1) Motorway has accelerated the pace of trade 2) More employment opportunities 3) Means of growth have been increased 4) Journey has become easy and time saving