CAUSES OF AGRICULTURAL BACKWARDNESS IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES/CAUSES OF LOW YIELD PER ACRE/PROBLEMS FACED BY AGRICULTURE SECTOR:
The agriculture sector in developing countries is backward. The yield per acre is very low. The low level of output shows that there are problems in our agriculture sector as compare to the world yield per acre our output level remains very low.
Traditional Methods of Farming:
Our old and traditional methods of farming are inefficient. The use of wooden plough driven by cattles hardly scratches the soil. Indifferently selected seeds inadequate fertilizers, lack of scientific cultivation practices etc., are still existing in the vast areas of cultivation.
Lack of Know-How:
Mostly the farmers are illiterate they do not know the modern ways of cultivation. They rely on their traditional knowledge and do not follow the modern ways of farming. Moreover; they have not been informed the modern research-based techniques of farming result only output level remains low.
Less Use of Modern Pesticides and Fertilizers:
There are two aspects of this problem, one is regarding the high price of these products and the second is the lack of information regarding the use of these things. Third could be the insufficient support of the government in this regard therefore, the result is the low yield per acre.
The problem is the subdivision and fragmentation of land into small pieces due to Local setup. On small pieces of land, cultivation cannot be done appropriately. Most of our farmers hold less than 12 ½ acres of land. This state of affairs shows that the majority of Farmers cannot get the benefits of scale and cannot apply the modern ways of farming to their smallholdings.
Inadequate Irrigational Facilities:s
Our main sources of irrigation are canals, water tanks, wells and tube-wells. Insufficient storage of water is the main cause in this regard. Although we hold the best canal system but cannot use our water property for cultivation. Corruption in this regard increases the nature of problems.
Defective Land Tenure System:
It refers to the rights of ownership and use of land. Land tenure system of developing countries has some defects like the absentee landlords and poor state of tenants. Feudal lords exploit the tenants. Tenants do not work whole heartily.
The government has established agricultural research institutes at places where cultivation and agricultural tasks are carried out. These institutions are for plant protection, seeds and fertilizers agricultural machinery, irrigation, marketing and particularly credit facilities. Although these institutions are to help the farmers, but these institutions are insufficient to resolve the problems of our agriculture sector.
Natural disasters like dust storms, heavy rains, floods, etc., badly influence agriculture productivity.
Nearly 15% of Agri-produce every year destroys due to various plant diseases. Attack of locust swarm, virus and other diseases spoil the plants. To save these plants we have inadequate facilities and services.
Waterlogging and salinity are the main soil problems of developing countries. Soil diseases increasing day by day due to which yield per acre is decreasing. Nearly 15 lac of acres have wasted due to waterlogging and salinity in developing countries.
Farmers are not literate so they cannot understand the modern ways of cultivation.
People of our rural areas are emotional. They have many disputes among themselves. They quarrel over the distribution of water, land and property. These conflicts take them to courts where they waste their money and time.
Ancestral debts are another social hurdle. Villages in developing countries lavishly spend on marriages, funeral ceremonies, festivals etc. This convention of lurish spending put them under the burden of loans.
The political scenario in developing countries is unstable. This uncertainty causes the problem of discontinuity in the policies. The changes in the policies badly hamper the performance of agriculture.
There is a lack of infrastructure facilities forms to market roads, storage, transport and electricity etc. in rural areas, the unsatisfactory provision of these facilities stand in the way of agricultural growth.