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Punjab University Lahore B.Com Subjects and Syllabus

University of the Punjab

Syllabi and Courses of Reading of B.Com. Part I & II (New I.T Scheme) Two year Pass Course Examination effective from Session 2001-2003 and onward.

The details of the scheme are given as under: –

B.Com Part-I

Code No.


Title of Subject.

Business Statistics & Mathematics



BC-302 Computer Application in Business 100
BC-303 Economics 100
BC-304 Financial Accounting 100
BC-305 Functional English 100
BC-306 Introduction to Business 100
BC-307 Money, Banking and Finance 100

BC-308       Islamic Studies (Ethical Behavior in lieu of     60

Islamic Studies for Non-Muslim Students)

Total:                    760

B.Com Part-II 

Code No.


Title of Subject

Advanced Financial Accounting



BC-402: Auditing 100
BC-403: Business Communication & Report Writing 100
BC-404: Business Law 100
BC-405: Business Taxation 100
BC-406: Cost Accounting 100
BC-407: Economics of Pakistan 100
BC-408: Pakistan Studies  40
Total: 740


Total Marks: B.Com Part-I 760 1500
B.Com Part-II 740

Practical Training

Two months practical training with a reputed Business, Information Technology and Commercial organization will be an integral part of the B.Com Programme. The students would be required to complete this training after appearing in the appearing in the B.Com Part-II Examination.




  1. Definition, Application in Business and Commerce. Classification and Tabulation. Statistical Enquiries, Diagrams and Graphs. Measures of Central Values. Measures of Skewness, Simple Correlation and Regression, Lines of Regression. Method of least square and curve fitting with application to Business.
  2. Index Numbers: Kinds of index numbers with special emphasis to consumer price index numbers.
  3. Probability; Set theory. Definition. Laws of Conditional probability, Independent and Dependent events; Application in Business.
  4. Random Variables: Introduction, Discrete and Continuous Random variables. Probability function. Expected values of Random
  5. Tests of significance: Introduction, Tests for means and proportions for single and two populations.
  6. Sampling, Chi-Square, Statistical Package for Social Sciences


Solution of simultaneous equation. Solution of quadratic equation, sequence Series and Progression; Arithmetic & Geometric and their application in Business. Metrics and determinants: Addition, Subtraction and Multiplication of Matrices, Expansion of Determinants, Inverse of a matrix, Use of matrix in the solution of system of linear equations, Mathematics for Finance, simple and compound interest and annuities.

Note:  At least two questions from each part will have to be answered.


  1. Syed Hassan Mirza. Business Mathematic for Management and
  2. W. Stafford. Business Mathematics
  3. Richard Business Statistics; when & Way; Irvan, & Publication, Illinois
  4. Business Statistics. Prentice Hall Inc.
  5. Nasir Ali Syed, and G.I1. Gill. Statistics & Business Mathematics. Fair Publication, Lahore.
  6. Zulfqar Ahmad Bowra, Business Statistics and
  7. John Hegarty “Calculus for Management and Social Sciences”, Allyn and Bacon. Inc. Boston (USA).
  8. Frank S. Bundwick “Applied Mathematics for Business, Company, New York, USA


  1. Introduction to Computer: History of computer, Parts of a computer. Types of computer: Analog and Digital Computers, Classification of computer, Hardware and Software. Components of a computer: Microprocessor, Memory: RAM, ROM, Input/Output devices & Storage devices. Types of Software: Operation Software: DOS & Windows Operating System, Application Software, Utility programmes, Programming languages: High-level, Low-level, procedural and non-procedural languages, Object-oriented and Data base query languages. Compiler, Interpreter and assembler. Common terminology’s used in computer
  2. Data processing: Difference between Data & Information, Data Processing, Life cycle of data processing, How data become information. The need of data processing in business organizations.
  3. Microsoft Windows 2000: Introduction, Task bar, Display properties, Control panel (mouse, keyboard, regional settings)
  4. Network: Types of Network: LAN, MAN, WAN. Communication Channels: Analog and Digital
  5. MS Office 2000 (Word, Excel and Power point).
  6. Internet and E-mail: Concept of Internet, Services provided by Internet, Using a web browser, Address bar, Refresh and Stop, Use of search engine, Saving information from the Internet, E-mail concept, Creation of an E-mail account of Free Web Servers, Sending and receiving E-mails, Difference between ISP and free server mail

Recommended Books. (Latest Editions)

  1. Liaqat Ali Chaudhry and Syed Asghar Ali Bukhari. Computer Application in Business, Syed Mobin Mahmud & Co., Lahore.
  2. Srivastava, Fundamentals of Information Technologies, Kalyani Publisher, New Delhi.
  3. Norton, P. et Microsoft Office 2000. Techmedia, New Delhi-2.
  4. Nuqoosh Software Learner. Short & Simple Guide: Find what you need fast, Nuqoosh, Lahore.
  5. Robert Szmaski. Introduction to Computer & Information System.
  6. Raymond Mcleod Jr. Management Information System,  (International Edition).
  7. Richard D. Irwin. Computer Information


Introduction: Definition, Nature, Scope and Importance (Micro and Macro) Economics, Description, Analysis and Policy: Economic Methodology.

Consumption: Definition and meaning, Diminishing Marginal Utility,  Consumer’s  Surplus, Law of Substitution; Indifference Curves. Consumer’s Equilibrium with Indifference Curves. Price and Income effect.

Demand & Supply: Definition and meaning, Curves; Elasticity of Demand and  its measurement. Income and Cross Elasticity. Supply, Changes in supply. Elasticity of Supply, Market Equilibrium Analysis.

Production: Law of variable proportions Factors of Production, Land, Labour and its mobility, Capital, its meaning, accumulation of capital, productivity of Capital, Entrepreneur, Functions of Entrepreneur.

Costs of Production: Fixed, Variable, Total, Average and Marginal; Costs over time period. Derivation of short and long run cost curves.

Market: Perfect and Imperfect Competition. Demand and Supply Relationship. Market Price determination under Perfect Competition, Monopoly and Monopolistic, Competition, Oligopoly, Duopoly (Basic Concepts).

Factor Pricing: Rent, Wages, Interest and Profit.

National Income: Measurement of National Income: Concepts of National Income-GNP, National Income at market price, at factor Cost; Measurement of National Product in current price and in constant prices.

Public Finance: Meaning, Difference between Private and Public Finance, Kinds of Taxes and Cannons of Taxation.

Economics in Islam: Economic role of State in Islam, Zakat and Usher.

Mathematical Economics: Differentiation of functions. Partial differentiation. Application of derivatives in Business/Commerce, Optimization. (Maximization and Minimization)


  1. Lioyd Reynolds  Irwin.  Micro  Economics  –  Analysis  &  Policy.  Irwin     Homwood Illinois,
  2. Nancy Smith Barrett. The Theory of Macro Economics Policy, Prentice
  3. Ed word Shapiro. Macro Economic Analysis, Harcourt
  4. Muhammad Irshad, Economics, Naveed Publications
  5. Salman Rizavi, Economics, Syed Mobin & Company
  6. Paul Sameulson, Economics, McGraw Hill Book Company
  7. Saeed Nasir Textbook of Economics, Ilmi Kutab Khana,
  8. Sh: Manzoor Economics, Ilmi Kutab Khana, Lahore.


  1. Field of accounting. Accounting terminology. Accounting cycle. Accounting
  2. Recording the business transactions: Journal, Ledger and Trial
  3. Subsidiary Ledgers,   Banking   Transactions,   Bank    Reconciliation   and   Negotiable Instruments, Bills of Exchange
  4. Depreciation Methods and Accounting Treatment
  5. The periodical adjustment and closing process-Accruals, pre-payments, inventory, depreciation, discounts, uncollectables. Correction of errors. Capital and Revenue. Provisions and
  6. The Worksheet and its Computerized Process .
  7. Final Accounts, Income Statement, Statement of changes in owners’ equity, Retained Earning Statement and Balance
  8. Partnership Accounts – Admission, Retirement, Death and Dissolution.
  9. Accounting for Non-trading concerns, Receipts and Payments Account. Income and Expenditure
  10. Incomplete records, single entry


  1. Arif & Suhail Afzal, Accounting, Azeem Academy Lahore.
  2. Ghani, M.A. Principles of Accounting, Salman Publishers,
  3. Meigs and Meigs! Accounting. The Basis for Business Decisions McGraw-Hill Book Company.
  4. Niswonger and Fess, Accounting Principles, South-Wastern.
  5. Muhammad Hanif and Azam Shafiq, Fundamentals of Accounting, Etisam Publishers, Lahore.
  6. Horngren, Harrison JR & Robinson,
  7. William Pickles, Accounting, Pitman
  8. Frank Wood & Alan Sangster, Business Accounting, Pitman
  9. International Accounting
  10. Dempsey Dupree & Matthew Marder, Principles of Accounting, Addison-wesley Publishing.


  1. Vocabulary: Antonyms, Synonyms, Homonyms, One word
  2. Practical Grammar – Sentence Structure: types of sentences – based on function g. Interrogative sentences, based on structure e.g. Compound sentences, Parts of a Sentence- subject, predicate, complements, direct indirect Objective, Rules for structuring sentences, Phrases – types and functions, Clauses – types and functions.
  1. Parts of Speech: Major word classes, Nouns – with further classifications (regular, countable; uncountable; singular; plural), Pronouns – with further classifications, Verbs – emphasis on three forms of verbs, Adjectives – with further classification – three degrees of comparison, Adverbs – with further classifications. Minor word classes: Preposition, Conjunctions – with further classifications, Interjections, Auxiliary verbs, Determiners, Infinitive, Participle, Gerund, Genitives – types and
  2. Punctuation: Tenses – Types, Structure, Function, Conversion into negative and interrogative.

      5. Active and Passive voice

  1. Direct and Indirect
  2. Articles: Definite, Indefinite
  3. Composition (comprehension) Precis Writing, Essay Writing


  1. Atta-ur-Rehman, Functional English, Furrukh & Brothers,
  2. “J. Chilver”, English for Business; A Functional Approach, DP Publication
  3. “Wren & Martin”, High School English Grammar & Composition: S. Chand & Company
  4. “Michael Swan”, Practical English Usage, Oxford University
  5. J. Thomson & A.V. Martinet, A Practical English Grammar:
  6. “Robert E. Barry”, Basic Business English, Prentice Hall Inc. Englewood Cliffs, New Jerssy.


Business: Meaning, Nature, Scope and Importance. Problems, Functions and Qualities of a Businessman,

Sole Proprietorship: Features, Importance, Merits and Demerits.

Partnership: Features, Merits and Demerits, Co-ownership vs. Partnership; Classification of Partners; Rights, Duties and Liabilities of Partners, Dissolution of Partnership.

Joint Stock Company: Features, Merits and Demerits, Formation, Memorandum of Association; Articles of Association, Prospectus, Capital, Management, Meetings, Winding up.

Cooperative Society: Features, Kinds, Merits and Demerits.

Combination: Meaning, Causes and Purposes, Advantages and Disadvantages. Types of Combination. Forms of Combination.

Trade: Home and Foreign Import and Export Wholesales, Retail, Channels of Distribution: Meaning, Function, Kinds, Selection of Channels, Advantages,

Marketing: Definition, Functions, Types, Scope, Advantage and Disadvantage, Selling, Sales Promotion: Meaning , Objects and methods, Advertising.

Business Risk: Definition, Types, Methods of Handling Risk, Insurance: Meaning, Principles, Kinds (Life, Fire. Marine) Importance.

E-Commerce: Introduction and Significance.

Stock Exchange: Functions and working in Pakistan


  1. Nisar-ud-Din. Business Organization. Aziz Publishers,
  2. Muhammad Irshad,Introduction to Business, Naveed Publications
  3. Khalid Mehmood Cheema,Introduction to Business, Syed Mobin Mahmood & company. Lahore.
  4. Theodore J. Sielaff and John Aberle. Introduction to Business. Belmont, California Wordsworth Publishing Company, Inc.
  5. Asakari Zaidi S.A. Fundamentals of Orient Publishers, Karachi.
  6. Glass & Introduction to Business, South Western Publishing Company.
  7. H. Ali Business Organization, PBC, Dhaka.
  8. Saeed Nasir M.A. Introduction to Business. IImi Kutab Khana,
  9. Pickle / Abrahamson, Introduction to Business, Good Year Publishing Company California



Introduction: Evolution, forms and Issuance, Functions, Importance and Role of Money.


Determination of the Value: Quantity Theory of Money, Cash Balance Theory of Money, Modern theory of Money,

Changes in Value: Inflation, Kinds, Causes, Remedies, Deflation, Reflation, Disinflation, Stagflation.

Measurement of Changes in Value: Index Numbers, Devaluation of Money. Foreign Exchange: Introduction, Determination of Rates of Exchange and factors involved.

Introduction to Money and Capital Markets:

Trade Cycle: Phases, Causes, Remedies, Theory of Trade Cycles.

International Monetary Systems: IMF, IBRD, Asian Development Bank, Islamic Development Bank.


Introduction: Evolution, Definition, Kinds of Banks. Scope of Banking.

Commercial Bank: Functions, Importance, Role of Banks, Credit Instruments & Credit Creation, Scope of E. Banking.

Bank Accounts: Opening, Operations and Closure of Various Types of Accounts.

Banker-Customer Relationship: Different Types of Customers, Nature of Relationship, Rights and Dut ies of Both Parties.

Bank Advances: Running Finance, Cash Finance, Demand Finance, Term Finance, Discounting of Bills, Purchase of Bills. Principles, Precautions and Procedures for advancing.

Letter of Credits: Kinds, Operations, Advantages.

Central Bank: Functions, Monetary Policy, State Bank of Pakistan, Functions and Role in the Economic Development of Pakistan.

Banking in Pakistan: Brief History, Nationalization, Privatization, ADBP, IDBP.

Islamic Banking: Evolution of Islamic Banking System in Pakistan.


Importance, Kinds & Sources of Interest Based and Interest Free Financing.

BOOKS RECOMMENDED: (Latest Editions)

  1. Israr H. Siddiqui, Practice and Law of Banking in Pakistan, Royal Book Co.,
  2. A.Menai, Banking and Finance in Pakistan, Oxford University Press, Karachi.
  3. Crowther, An Outline of Money, Thomas Nelson & Sons Ltd,
  4. Saeed Nasir, Money & Banking, Kitab Markaz Faisalabad.
  5. Hassan Mobeen Alam, Money Banking and Financing, Syeed Mubin Mahmood & Co., Lahore.
  6. Muhammad Irshad,Money & Banking, Naveed Publication,
  7. J.Henderson, Banking Operations, D P Publishing, Ltd.
  8. Zia-ud-Din, Munawar Iqbal & M. Fahim, Money and Banking in Islam, International Centre for Research in Islamic Economics, King Abdul Aziz University, Jeddah & Institute of Policy Studies,
  9. Miller & Pulsinelli, Modern Money & Banking, McGraw Hill,
  10. Akram Khan, Islamic Banking in Pakistan, All Pakistan Islamic Education Congress, Lahore.
  11. Abdul Jabbar Khan, Five Decades of Banking in Pakistan, NBP,



Ethical Behaviour in lieu of Islamic Studies for Non-Muslim Students

Ethical Behaviour:

  • Meaning and Scope of Ethics,
  • Relation of Ethics with:
    1. Religion b)         Science            c)         law
  1. Historical Development of Morality:
    1. Instinctive Moral
    2. Customary Morality
    3. Reflective
  2. Moral Theories:
    1. Hedonism (Mill)
    2. Intuitionism (Butler)
    3. Kant’s Moral Theory
  3. Moral Ethics and Society:
    1. Freedom and
    2. Tolerance
    3. Justice
    4. Punishment (Theories of Punishment)
  4. Moral Teachings of Major Religions:
    1. Judaism
    2. Christianity
    3. Islam
  5. Professional Ethics:
    1. Medical Ethics
    2. Ethics of Students
    3. Ethics of Teachers
    4. Business
  6. Islam’s attitude towards

BOOKS RECOMMENDED: (Latest Editions)

  1. William Lille. An Introduction to Ethics, London Methuen &
  2. Titus, H.H. ‘Ethics in Theory and Practice’ N.Y. Thomas Y.
  3. Hill, Thomas, ‘Ethics in Theory and Practice’ N.Y. Thomas Y.
  4. Ameer Ali, ‘The Ethics of Islam. Calcutta: Noor Library Publisher.
  5. Donaldson, D.M. ‘Studies in Muslim Ethics’ London .
  6. Sayed, S.M. (Tr.) ‘Ta’aruf-e-Akhlaqiat. Karachi: BCC&T, Kar. Univ.



  1. Company Accounts, Issue of Shares, Bonds, over subscription, Refund. Issue of Bonus and right
  2. Preparation of final accounts under Companies Ordinance 1984. Dividends and the payment
  3. Ratio Analysis: Solvency, Profitability, Efficiency,
  4. Branch
  5. Departmental
  6. Hire Purchase, Installment
  7. Mergers, acquisitions and changes in financial structures, Valuation of Goodwill and Shares.
  8. Liquidation of Joint Stock
  9. Consignments & Joint Ventures
  10. Contract


  1. Meigs and Johnson, Advanced Accounting, McGraw
  2. Karrenbrock and Simon Advanced Accounting, South Western Publication
  3. Karrenbrock & Simon, Intermediate Accounting, Southwestern Publication
  4. A. Ghani, Advanced Accounting, Sulman Publication, Lahore.
  5. Aftab Ahmad Khan, Advanced Accounting, Orient Publishers,
  6. Nisar-ud-Din, Advanced Accounting,
  7. Uzair Hassan, Advanced Accounting,
  8. Carter, Advanced Accounts, Pitman Publishers,
  9. Rup Ram Gupta, Advanced Accounting, Agra Book
  10. Jamshed R. Batliboi, Typical Problems in Advanced Accounting, The standard Accountancy publications,
  11. Hrishikesh Chakraborty, Advanced Accounting, Oxford University Press, Dehli.
  12. Shukla & Grewal, Advanced Accounts, Union Book Stall,
  13. Muhammad Muinuddin Khan, Advanced Accounting, Ideal Library.
  14. Arnold J. Pahler, Advanced Accounting, Concepts and Practice, The Dryden


Introduction: Definition Scope and Objects

Internal Control: Internal Audit, Internal Check, Internal Control for cash, purchases, store and sales departments.

Kinds of Audit: Continuous,  Final and  Interim audit.  Audit  Program,  Test  checking, Audit Working Papers, Audit Note Book.

Vouching: Techniques and Applications.

Verifications: Verification of Assets and Liabilities.

Auditors in Pakistan: Appointment, rights, duties and liabilities.

Audit Reports: Statutory, Prospectus, Annual, Unqualified and Qualified reports.

Specialized Audit:  Audit of  Textile,   Sugar,   Bank,   Newspaper   Cement and  Insurance Companies.

Audit of computerized Accounting Records

Investigation: Meaning, difference with audit, Detection of Frauds.


  1. Khawaja Amjad Saeed, Auditing, Accountancy & Taxation Services Institute,
  2. Muhammad Irshad, Auditing Naveed Publication,
  3. Zafar M. Auditing.
  4. Meigs & Larson Principles of Auditing. University of Congress, Richard, D.
  5. Attwood and Stein, N.D.de Paula’s Auditing, Principles and Practice. Pitman Publishing Ltd.,
  6. Emile Woolf, Auditing Today, Prentice Hall
  7. Wanda Wallace, Auditing Macmillan Publishing Companies, New York.
  8. Kamal Gupta, Contemporary Auditing, Tata McGraw-Hill Publishing Company Limited, Delhi
  9. Muhammad Aslam Khan, Refresher Course on Auditing, S.A. Salam Publications, Lahore.


  1. Importance of Business Communication: Introduction,
  2. The Process of communication and Miscommunication: Elements of communication, General Communication, Concepts and Problems, Non-verbal
  3. Principles of Business communication: Completeness, Conciseness Consideration, Concreteness, Clarity, Courtesy,
  4. Process of Preparing effective business messages: Steps in planning effective business messages, Basic organizational plans, Beginning and endings, composition of the message.
  5. Direct Requests: Organizational plan, Inquires, Claims and requests for adjustments, Request regarding routine business, Invitations, Orders, Reservations
  6. Good news and Neutral Messages: Favourable replies to the
  7. Bad news messages: The right attitude, Plan for bad news messages, Unfavourable replies to
  8. Sales Letters: Solicited sales letter, Unsolicited sales
  9. Collection Messages: Right attitude for effective collections, Collection
  10. Official letters: Parts and
  11. Business Reports: Meaning and classification, Main parts of the report, organizational and outline of
  12. Market Reports: Definition, Scope, Importance, Contents, Market
  13. Successful oral Presentation and Successful Listening: Presentation – Descript ion and Methodology, Listening – Descript
  14. Successful Informative Speaking: Purpose, Kinds, Organization and Outlines of the Informative


  1. Herta Murphy, Effective Business communication, McGraw Hill.
  2. Atta-ur-Rehman, Effective Business Communication and report writing. Farrakh Brothers, Lahore.
  3. John V. Thill Courtland L. Bouee”, Excellence in Business communication, McGraw Hill Inc.
  4. Norman Sigband & David Bateman, Communicating in Business, Scott, Foresman and Compnay, Glenview.
  5. Raymond Lesikar & John Pettit Jr, Business Communication, Richard D. Irwin, Inc. Homewood,
  6. Chester Wolford & Gretchen Vanneman, Business Communication, The Drvden


Law of Contract

Definitions. Formation of contract. Essentials of a Valid Contract. Performance of Contract. Discharge of Contract. Breach of Contract: Law Governing Indemnity, Guarantee, Bailment and Agency.

Sale of Goods Act

Definition. Types of Contract of sales. Conditions and Warranties effects of the contract of sales. Performance of the contract. Rights of Unpaid seller.

Negotiable Instruments Act

Definitions, Characteristics and Types of Negotiable Instruments. Negotiation, Endorsement. Liabilities of parties. Discharge from Liability.

Carriage of Goods

Common Carrier. Essentials of a Common Carrier, Rights, and Duties of a common Carrier. Restricted Liability of Railway Carriage and by Sea.

Industrial Law

Laws relating to Factories, Workmen Compensation, Social Security, Payment of Wages.


  1. G. Chaudhry, Mercantile Law in Pakistan. Pakistan Publishing House, Karachi.
  2. Khawaja Amjad Saeed, Mercantile Law of Pakistan, Accountancy & Taxation Services Institute,
  3. Khalid Mahmud Cheema, Business Law, Syed Mobin Mahmud & Co.,
  4. of Pakistan. Relevant Acts and Ordinances
  5. R. Hashmi. A Manual of Mercantile Law.
  6. Avtar Singh, Company Law, Irfan Law Book House, Lahore.
  7. Denis Keenan, Smith and Keenan’s Company Law, Pitman


History of Income Tax Law in Pakistan. Taxation structure and Administration in Pakistan. Income Tax Law. Assessment procedure. Income Tax Problems of Individuals. Partnership and Joint Stock Companies. Computerized I.T. Returns of individuals, partnership and joint stock company, Wealth Tax Structure, Basic Features of Sales Tax and its application.


  1. Khawaja Amjad Saeed. Income Tax Law with Practical Problems. Accountancy and Taxation Services Institute,
  2. Muhammad Muazzam Mughal, Income Tax: Principles and Practice., Syed Mobin Mahmud & Co,
  3. Muhammad Muazzam Mughal, Sales Tax, Syed Mobin Mahmud & Co.
  4. Luqman Baig, Income Tax: Problems & Solutions,
  5. I. Naqvi, Inconie Tax Law. Taxation House, Lahore.
  6. I Naqvi,. Sales Tax Law, Taxation House, Lahore.
  7. of Pakistan. Sales Tax Act.
  8. of Pakistan, Income Tax Ordinance.
  9. Luqman Baig, Income Tax Law, Ghazanfar Academy,


  1. Meaning, need and importance of Cost Accounting. Distinction between Cost & Financial Accounting.
  2. Elements of Cost; Cost Classification and Costing systems; Cost Accounting Cycle & Costing
  3. Voucher system and Control Accounts, Factory and General Office
  4. Job Order Costing and its
  5. Material Costing and
  6. Labour costs Accounting and Incentive Wages Plans
  7. Factory Overhead Costing, Accumulation, Application and Departmentalization including variance
  8. Process Costing; including treatment of addition of material in a subsequent


  1. Cost Accounting, Aziz. Publishers, Urdu Bazar, Lahore.
  2. Matz A., Usry, Cost Accounting, South-Western Publishing Co.
  3. Qavi Ahmad, Cost Accounting.
  4. Horngren, Foster  & Datar, Cost   Accounting,  A  Managerial Emphasis, South-Western Publishing
  5. Hammer, Carter & Usry, Cost Accounting, South-Western Publishing
  6. Jack Gray & Ricketts, Cost and Managerial Accounting, McGraw-Hill Book
  7. Brock & Palmer, Cost Accounting, Principles and Applications, McGraw-Hill Book Company.
  8. Lucey, Costing.


  1. Economic Development and its Requisites. Mineral, power, water, forest and Human resources. Influence of resources on economic and social
  2. Development of Natural Resources
  3. Agricultural Development: Main products. Food problems, Price of Agricultural products and Government policies, collective and cooperative Farming; Agricultural Finance: Problems and Remedies; Marketing of Agricultural products and problems related thereto.
  1. Industrial Development: Present position and prospects. Industrial finance and financial Institutions; Localization of Industries; Private and Public Investment; Large Scale, Small Scale, and Cottage Industries, SAMEDA, Marketing of Industrial Products.
  1. Trade: Main Exports and Imports; Volume, Value and trends in foreign trade and Balance of payments; Trade agreements.
  1. Transport and Communication: Development of means of Transport and Communication and their role in economic development.
  1. Economic Planning, Budgeting and Debts


  1. Saeed Nasir. Economic Problems of Pakistan. Ilmi Book House, Lahore.
  2. Government of Pakistan. Economic
  3. Government of Pakistan. The Five-year
  4. Amjid Saeed Economy of Pakistan.
  5. Parvez Hasan, Pakistan’s Economy at the Crossroads, past policies and present imperatives, Oxford University Press,
  6. Ishrat Hussain, Pakistan the Economy of An Elitist State, Oxford University Press, Karachi.


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